THE THEORY OF ATOMIC STRUCTURE Within this category, a new theory of atomic structure is presented, based upon the old quantum theory of Niels Bohr and Arnold Sommerfeld. In this the orbiting electron is treated as a real physical particle with finite extensions. However, it does make use of one aspect of the modern quantum mechanics theory of atomic structure - the single valuedness of the electron matter wave in its orbit. This aspect is covered via an initial investigation into the characteristics of de Broglie matter waves in the Relativistic Space-Time Domain D_{0}, (Pseudo-Euclidean Space-Time). The paper on this subject in available in the Section on Particle Physics. The links below are to the PDF papers. |
Resurrection of the Bohr/Sommerfeld Theory of Atomic Structure - 1 - Basic Orbits Including Relativistic Mass Increase Effects, (P2 Ver. 2.0.1) - This paper initiates the development by providing, (i) a complete justification of the quantisation criteria related to the principle quantum number, and which includes proofs of permitted and non-permitted orbits, (ii) the derivation of the Bohr quantised orbital angular momentum rules, (iii) the derivation of a generalised relativistic orbit energy level equation, and (iv) the derivation of the quantised energy levels for four permitted orbits, with and without relativistic mass increase effects, the former producing the emission spectra fine structure. Emission spectra and orbital energy levels for hydrogen are calculated and tabularised for the stage of development to this point. |
Resurrection of the Bohr/Sommerfeld Theory of Atomic Structure - 2 - Incorporation of the Mechanical Effects of Electron Spin, (P3 Ver. 1.0.2) - The second paper addresses the mechanical effects of electron spin. This includes, (i) the necessity and nature of electron spin, (ii) quantisation of electron spin, and (iii) the effect of electron spin on the orbit energy levels and emission spectra. In addition it is here that the orbit transition Selection Rules are derived in detail. |
Resurrection of the Bohr/Sommerfeld Theory of Atomic Structure - 3 - Magnetic Dipole Coupling, (P4 Ver. 1.3.0) - This paper derives the effects of spin/orbit magnetic dipole coupling, first via its effect on the quantisation of the principle quantum number, and secondly from first principles. The result is the emission spectra fine structure splitting. A brief comparison of development so far with the modern quantum mechanics theory of atomic structure is also presented at this point. Emission spectra and orbital energy levels for hydrogen are calculated and tabularised for the stage of development to this point. |
Resurrection of the Bohr/Sommerfeld Theory of Atomic Structure - 4 - The Addition of Small Relativistic Energy Terms Incorporating The Lamb Shift, (P5 Ver. 1.1.2) - This paper adds small relativistic correction terms to the orbital energy levels. These are due to (i) the distributed nature of the charge on the electron, and (ii) the dynamic distance of the nucleous from the central point of orbital rotation. These terms are then shown to incorporate the Lamb Shift. A detailed comparison of development so far with the modern quantum mechanics/quantum electrodynamics theory is also presented, together with detailed discussions on (i) emission spectra, (ii) orbital energy levels and intervals, (iii) the Lamb Shift, (iv) the mechanics of orbital transitions, and (v) ionisation orbitals. Emission spectra and orbital energy levels for hydrogen are calculated and tabularised for the stage of development to this point. A downloadable spreadsheet file incorporating all such calculated spectra is available for review and analysis as desired |
Resurrection of the Bohr/Sommerfeld Theory of Atomic Structure - 5 - The Hyperfine Structure, (P6 ver. 1.0.0) - This paper adds variations to the orbital complement to include the hyperfine orbitals and the resulting emission spectra. Details of the electron transitions that cause this emission are included together with the the mathematical representation. Emission spectra and orbital energy levels for hydrogen are calculated and tabularised. A downloadable spreadsheet file incorporating all such calculated spectra is available for review and analysis as desired |
Resurrection of the Bohr/Sommerfeld Theory of Atomic Structure - [6] - The Addition of Small Relativistic Correction Terms to Electron Magnetic Dipole Coupling Energies, et al. (P7 Version 1.0.0) - This paper continues the resurrection of this theory, as applied to hydrogen, by adding relativistic correction terms to the magnetic dipole coupling energies of the electron, both orbital and spin. These correction terms are due to (i) the distributed nature of surface charge, (ii) the distributed nature of the electron's mass, and (iii) the relativistic mass increase due to both orbital and spin velocities. The overall results, compared to the published literature, provide a nine times improvement to the orbital energy levels, as quoted in the previous paper in this series, which also eliminates the systemic difference higlighted in that paper. Energy interval comparisons now show complete agreement with the published literature, as does the vacuum spectral wavelength comparison. The results for air spectra show a two times improvement, which is only limited by the unavailability of air refractive index tables to the required accuracy and precision.
Overall, yet further improvements, i.e. to a higher level of precision, could be obtained by treating the proton in a like manner. An upgraded Hydrogen Spectra EXCEL spreadsheet is also available with this paper. |
The six papers above will later be augmented by one more dealing with transition probabilities and emission spectra relative intensities. |
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